Social Policy Blog Post 5

Explain the role the voluntary and private sector have in social welfare.  Describe at least 2 benefits and 2 concerns relating to the voluntary sector and/or the private sector in general. 

The voluntary sector is comprised of not for profit organizations that are funded through private donations. These organizations have a significant impact on social welfare in the United States. Not-for-profit social welfare organizations are typically accessed by individuals who are unable to meet their needs with government only assistance. Non-profit organizations foster feelings of community and have the ability to be flexible with business practices and service guidelines. Non-profit organizations are often faced with helping the needy or paying the organization’s bills. Not-for-profit organization do not generate money, so frequently these organizations must deny aid in order to sustain the organization. The increasing number of needy individuals is also on the rise. The increase in individuals seeking social welfare services makes it difficult for non-profit organizations to provide aid to all of those in need.

The private sector developed from the idea that the government should have less of a role within the lives of citizens, including welfare. Private companies are for-profit organizations that may receive federal funding or government contracts to provide aide to the needy. Supporters of privatization of social welfare believe private organizations provide better services more efficiently. Examples of private social welfare organizations are managed care organizations, child care services, nursing homes, and correction facilities. One issue with privatization of social welfare is the increased likelihood that aid will not be provided to the needy in order for the company to maintain its business practices and structure.

BP 5

Explain the role the voluntary and private sector have in social welfare. Describe at least 2 benefits and 2 concerns relating to the voluntary sector and/or the private sector in general.

Voluntary sector consists of professionals and laypersons that seek to maintain and enhance traditional relations, values, and structures in their communities through private, nonprofit agencies. Traditional providers see social welfare as tightly interwoven with other community’s institutions. Voluntary nonprofits agencies offer the advantages of neighborliness, a reaffirmation of community values, a concern for community as opposed to personal gain, and freedom to alter programming to conform to changes in local priorities. Voluntary agencies also routinized philanthropic contribution by socializing charity.Voluntary sector  emphasizes the planning and regulatory functions of the state. Some concerns and challenges that voluntary sectors face are: how will they preserve the mission of caring for the disenfranchised without succumbing to the bottom-line ethos of the corporate sector? How will they respond to the range of diverse populations without favoring the mainstream?

The Private sector consists of private organizations under the human service executive umbrella. These organizations are made up of salaried employees of for profit firms and, as such, have less autonomy. They advance market strategies for promoting social welfare and favor the rationality of the marketplace in allocating resources and evaluating programs. 

Karger, H. J., & Stoesz, D. (2013). American social welfare policy: A pluralist approach (7th ed.). New York: Allyn & Bacon.

Ready Player One Summed Up

Wade Watts lives in an overcrowded future in a multi-decker trailer park establishment with his aunt. There are a lot of people living in a small area, and to escape he goes and plays a VR game called OASIS.

OASIS is a virtual online environment that allows for users to go to school and this is much better than the regular non-virtual schooling system. We see an introduction to the Sixers who are an organization looking for the famous Halliday’s egg.

We meet Wade’s friend named Aech (nickname)  who has their own chatroom and they get into a small quarrel with their acquaintance I-r0K

Wade can visit anywhere with the help of the virtual world teachers. OASIS is divided into 27 sectors that involve combat, magic, technology or a combination of them. The world uses OASIS for basically everything. OASIS is a pay to play, and he can’t afford to get anywhere but the school area he’s currently in.

We then are introduced to a strategy guide of the egg hunt which is essentially a guide to Halliday’s (the creator of the egg hunt) life.  Our first adventure awaits us as Wade believes that the Copper Key is within the Tomb of Horrors, an in-game recreation of a Dungeons and Dragons map. The adventure is in finding the tomb.

Wade realizes in his Latin class that ludus means game, so the Tomb must be on the planet he can visit and this is on top of the fact that Halliday played a large role in the OASIS school system.

Wade plans to teleport to a sporting event on Ludus because it’s free and he can’t afford other transportation, so he only has to run for an hour to reach the tomb. He finds it and goes inside.

Wade finds the throne room where the lich Acererak is and he beats him at The Joust, he then gets the copper key and a riddle to find the copper gate. Before he leaves, Art3mis (his crush who’s probably a guy) enters the room. She essentially talks to him about the competition and then locks him in a chamber that will last until the enemies respawn. He gives her a hint on how to beat Acererak. Wade finds the copper door on a poster of WarGames and then goes into the poster. Wade then acts out the Mathew Broderick Film and then we see some foreshadow of how he finds the egg and is killed by an army of people.

Essentially, to cap this, the 3 friends find the other keys and race the Sixers to get the egg. Wade finds Art3mis in real life and they basically hook up.

Monday, February 27

Today is Monday, and that means Week 6 is now over... and Week 7 has begun! The new week's topic in the Myth-Folklore class is Asian and African stories once again, and in Indian Epics it's a chance to take another look at the Mahabharata. You can find the week's assignments at the Class Calendar.

Class Procedures and Reminders

Project stack. As always on Monday, I will have a huge bunch of assignments in the Project stack that were turned in over the weekend or on Monday morning. The first thing I will do on Monday morning when I get to work is to update the list of items in the stack. Then, you will be able to check the stack to make sure I received your assignment, and I"ll be replying to the assignments in the order received.

Fall enrollment. Enrollment will be starting soon for Fall classes, and the online classes fill up really quickly. If any of you would like to enroll in MLLL-3043 Myth-Folklore or MLLL-4993 Indian Epics for this Fall, please let me know either this week or next week, and I will save you a place. Likewise, if you have a friend who would like to take the class, have them contact me now. I can always save a place if someone contacts me before enrollment actually starts.

The following items are for fun and exploration:

Spelling. Once again, the spellchecker will not help: KID NAPPING.

Stories. Words of wisdom from Tom Robbins: We're our own dragons as well as our own heroes, and we have to rescue ourselves from ourselves.

Words from Mythology. Did you know that CHAOS is a word from Greek mythology? ΧΑΟΣ.

Featured Storybook. This project is from the Myth-Folklore class: Kindergarten Shenanigans. Aesop's fables set in the lives of kindergarteners, with a good lesson learned every time.

Free Book Online: Today's free book is The Story of the Great War: Some Lessons from the Mahabharata by Annie Besant. See the Freebookapalooza blog for links and the table of contents. The author, Annie Besant, was a remarkable woman; you can find out more about her here: Annie Besant.

Words of Wisdom: Today's saying is Early to bed and early to rise makes a man healthy, wealthy and wise (an English proverb). Find out more at the Proverb Lab. Rhyming proverbs are my favorites!

Video: The video for today is Harry Potter Meets Hindu Mythology. This is another video from the Epified YouTube channel.

Growth Mindset: Today's growth mindset cat is ready to learn from mistakes: Errors are portals of discovery. You can find out more at the Growth Mindset blog.

Event on Campus: Come enjoy some "Delectable Diversity" this evening from 6:30PM until 9PM in the Community space in Bizzell Library (details). You can find out more about this and other events at the Campus Calendar online.

February 27: Longfellow. Today is the birthday of the American poet Henry Wadsworth Longfellow in 1807; you can read more about Longfellow's life and career at Wikipedia. One of his most famous compositions is Hiawatha, which some of you in Myth-Folklore may be reading later this semester.


Check out the Twitter stream for information and fun stuff during the day, or click here for past announcements.

Module 1-3 Concepts


Tomar, B. (2014, March & april). Axiology in Teacher Education: Implementation and Challenges. Retrieved February 9, 2017, from

Axiology is the branch of philosophy that analyzes values (nature of, origin or, permanence of). The teacher can influence the student based on their beliefs, personality, and thoughts, but the teacher needs to take the role of facilitator and not guide students towards personal beliefs of understanding.


McLeod, S.  (2014) Cognitive Dissonance. Simply Psychology. Retrieved January 27, 2017, from

Cognitive Dissonance is a situation that a person faces usually involving conflicting beliefs. This causes a person to change their belief about something. These beliefs can be changed through effort, decision-making, and behavior. In a classroom, this can be related to a growth mindset. If students perceive themselves as not being able to do something, the situation (or growth mindset) puts them in situations to change their perception.


Cognitive Flexibility Theory (Spiro, Feltovitch & Coulson). (n.d.). Retrieved February 09, 2017, from

Cognitive flexibility is the ability to transfer knowledge and skills beyond their initial learning situation. A teacher provides instruction to the student. The student is able to take that information and apply it in many situations. Take learning to tie a shoe for example. The teacher will demonstrate with bunny ears, the student applies that concept, when mastery the teacher shows a more difficult method, and the student practices this until mastery.


Constructivism as a Paradigm for Teaching and Learning. (n.d.). Retrieved February 9, 2017, from

Constructivist is the way that people learn- observation and scientific study. Using reflection and experiences to gain their knowledge. A teacher encourages the students to assess themselves during activities to determine if they are understanding the material being taught. This can be done through a KWL chart. This chart shows the student’s knowledge (K) before learning, what (W) the student might want to know about the topic, and what the student has learned (L).


Our Concept and Definition of Critical Thinking. (n.d.). Retrieved February 19, 2017, from

Critical Thinking is improving the a person’s thinking through analyzing, assessing and reconstructing their thinking. This type of thinking can be self-directed and self-monitored. A critical thinker in education will be questioning their learning and forming their learning based on their knowledge acquisition. They will be a thinker that can communicate their thoughts effectively, and figure out solutions to difficult situations.


McLeod, S.  (2014) Cognitive Dissonance. Simply Psychology. Retrieved January 27, 2017, from

Bradshaw, A. C., Keller, C. O., & Chen, C. (2003, 11). Reflecting on ethics, ethical codes, and relevance in an international instructional technology community. TechTrends,47(6), 12-19.

Cultural invasion refers to one culture entering another culture with their beliefs affecting the beliefs of that culture. Education and schools interact with many different cultures on a daily basis. The teacher in a classroom may have one culture/belief and teach/interact several students from several other cultures. The teacher has to take care that the beliefs that are held are not forced upon those that are in the classroom.


Bradshaw, A. C., Keller, C. O., & Chen, C. (2003, 11). Reflecting on ethics, ethical codes, and relevance in an international instructional technology community. TechTrends,47(6), 12-19.

Cultural synthesis is the coming together and understanding of different cultures. Understanding the cultures in our classrooms will help with a multitude of aspects in the classroom. Teachers will better understand the reasoning behind some behaviors, the traditions families and students have, and how to communicate within that culture.


Reynolds, J. (n.d.). Retrieved February 19, 2017, from

Deconstruction in literacy is the “aspect concerns the textual interpretation, where intervention is essential to finding hidden alternative meanings in the text”. In education this is prevalent in ELA classes, and with my experience in early childhood classrooms, more so. Students have to deconstruct the meaning of what they read, write, listen to, to gain an understanding.


(n.d.). Retrieved January 27, 2017, from

Dialectic is the discussion and understanding of a dialogue. Elementary students need to have discussions and be able to express their thoughts when learning to read. They need to be able to understand the dialogue that there are reading, and they can achieve this through dialectic.


(n.d.). Retrieved January 27, 2017, from

Bradshaw, A. C., Keller, C. O., & Chen, C. (2003, 11). Reflecting on ethics, ethical codes, and relevance in an international instructional technology community. TechTrends,47(6), 12-18

Dialogue is a conversation between two or more people. This can be achieved through writing or talking. The information that our students receive must be able to be processed and decoded for understanding.


(n.d.). Retrieved January 27, 2017, from

Dichotomy is Greek for “dividing into two.” Conflicts, how two things or people are different. Relating to education, I think this would be that every teacher is different. You cannot expect two classes to be exactly the same and therefore common lesson plans can create a conflict between the two classrooms.


Bradshaw, A. C., Keller, C. O., & Chen, C. (2003, 11). Reflecting on ethics, ethical codes, and relevance in an international instructional technology community. TechTrends,47(6), 12-18

Ethics are what should be done for the greater good, even if it is not belief of the majority. As a teacher in my school we relate this to integrity to our students. We talk about the choice to do the right thing, even when no one is looking. For the greater good of our school, it is not okay to litter in the restrooms, which is why we throw our paper towels in the trashcan.


Schuh, K. & Barab, S. (2007). Philosophical perspectives. In J.M. Spector, M.D. Merrill, J. van Merrienboer & M.P. Driscoll (Eds), Handbook of research on educational communications and technology (pp 67-82). NY: Lawrence Earlbaum

Epistemology is the methods we take to gaining knowledge, how someone comes to know something. Lesson delivery for teachers will vary greatly based on their their own experiences and learning theory. This would include differentiated instruction, instruction that is designed to be multiple levels and apply to a student’s needs.


Curtis, G. (n.d.). Formal Fallacy. Retrieved February 20, 2017, from

Formal Fallacies is affirming the consequence of the argument, has a defect in it’s form.

  1. If someone cannot read, then they look at the pictures of the book
  2. And, Mike looks at the pictures of the book
  3. Therefore, Mike is cannot read.  (In all actuality, this statement is not necessarily true)


Framing: Your Most Important and Least Recognized Daily Ment. (n.d.). Retrieved February 12, 2017, from

Framing is using experiences and beliefs to determine meaning out of something. Teachers use the experiences and perspectives they have when instructing students.


Eisner, E. (1979). The three curricula that all schools teach. In The educational imagination: On the design and evaluation of school programs. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill Prentice Hall

Hidden (implicit) curriculum is the curriculum or behaviors that is taught through daily practices. This curriculum is often unwritten and unofficial. The hidden curriculum in education is often how our students interact with their peers and teachers. Another hidden curriculum would be through the students’ observations of their teachers (and adults) and mimicking that behavior. At my school, we have each students address each other by name when in conversation. This hidden curriculum is to teach students that when interacting in a conversation with someone, you need to address them by name.


Curtis, G. (n.d.). Formal Fallacy. Retrieved February 20, 2017, from

Informal Fallacies arises out of the content of the argument, has a defect in the content. These fallacies arise out of a valid argument with a false premise. An example would be a student stating they will get in trouble if the teacher does not pass them on the test.


Interpretivism (interpretivist) Research Philosophy. (n.d.). Retrieved February 12, 2017, from

Interpretivist is the belief that people cannot separate from their knowledge. They make their own choices and understand the world by putting themselves in someone else’s shoes. A teacher helps students resolve a conflict through conversation about the feelings on each side. The teacher has the students think about how the other would feel, or have the students describe to others how they felt.


Code-switching. (n.d.). Retrieved February 20, 2017, from

Linguistic Codes / Code Switching moving between variations in language in different settings and situations. An example in education is a child using one dialect to talk to friends, and then switching dialect to talk in the classroom.


Curtis, G. (n.d.). Logical Fallacy. Retrieved February 20, 2017, from

Logical Fallacies is an error in reasoning. Adopting a position, or trying to persuade someone to adopt their position based on an error in reasoning.


Bradshaw, A. C., Keller, C. O., & Chen, C. (2003, 11). Reflecting on ethics, ethical codes, and relevance in an international instructional technology community. TechTrends,47(6), 12-18

Morals are rules that are socially accepted within a group. Morals can be related to the classroom environment from class to class in a building. In some classrooms it is accepted that students may discuss problems with work/classmates, therefore allowing/causing a loud classroom environment, while other classrooms do not allow this, causing a quiet classroom environment.


Bradshaw, A.C. (2001). A Hermeneutic of Ethical Teacher-Learner Interaction. Journal of Thought, 36(2), 17-24

Hermeneutics / Hermeneutic Spiral is the understanding one has about something based on their background knowledge. This is a process students go through as they begin to understand something. The students has an understanding of a concept, then they are given an explanation and allowed time to explore the concept, this may lead to a new understanding or a more concrete understanding.


Non Sequitur. (n.d.). Retrieved February 20, 2017, from

Non sequitur is a statement that does not identify/follow with the premise/statement made before. An example in education would be in a group setting discussing bats.

  1. Bats are mammals.
  2. Bats can fly.
  3. Pig are mammals, therefore pigs can fly.

Or Johnny is reading a funny novel. His favorite genre must be comedy.


Flinders, D. J., Noddings, N., & Thorton, S. J. (1986). The Null Curriculum: Its Theoretical Basis and Practical Implications. Curriculum Inquiry,16(1), 33-42. Retrieved February 10, 2017, from

Null curriculum are the things that schools do not teach. Schools that teach do not teach their students life skills such as finances, cooking, or career path choices are demonstrating the non-importance of these skills to their students.


Cason, J. (2005). Objectivism and Education: A Response to David Elkind’s ‘The Problem with Constructivism’. The Educational Forum,69, 232-238. Retrieved February 9, 2017, from

Objectivist is the belief that the world has a structure and that students learn that structure and show their knowledge by lecture, studying, testing. A student listens to a lecture (the steps), studies, and then applies the concept on a test. For example, on Khan Academy, students can do a math problem and be walked through the problem step by step. They can also let the program know if they have learned something or if they need additional instruction, and Khan Academy will provide the additional instruction.


Schuh, K. & Barab, S. (2007). Philosophical perspectives. In J.M. Spector, M.D. Merrill, J. van Merrienboer & M.P. Driscoll (Eds), Handbook of research on educational communications and technology (pp 67-82). NY: Lawrence Earlbaum

Ontology is the study of things that actually exist. An example in education would be when students are asked to prove if something really exists, taking something that is abstract and proving that it is real. This makes me think of teaching math to second graders. We take the abstract concept of addition and make it real by using manipulatives.


(n.d.). Retrieved January 27, 2017, from

Positionality is the position one takes based on life experiences. Many students come to class with different experiences and lessons can go in unplanned directions based on the positionality of the students and the discussions that develop through the lesson.


Positivism & Post-Positivism. (n.d.). Retrieved February 9, 2017, from

Positivism is the belief that knowledge is acquired through actual experience. When I teach my teachers a new app or technology device, I begin with hands-on instruction. I have the teachers completing the task with their own device to help ensure understanding.


Appeal to Possibility. (n.d.). Retrieved February 20, 2017, from

Probabilistic Fallacy is when a conclusion is reached because the possibility could be true.


(n.d.). Retrieved January 27, 2017, from

Problem / Problematize is something that is made into needing a solution. In problem based learning, teachers provide a problem that students inquire, research, and develop solutions to.


Curtis, G. (n.d.). Fallacy of Propositional Logic. Retrieved February 20, 2017, from

Propositional Fallacy is when one part of the statement is true, then the other part of the statement is believe to not be true.

  1. Henry reads comedy or adventure novels.
  2. Henry reads Diary of a Whimpy Kid.
  3. Therefore, Henry does not like Harry Potter.


Bradshaw, A. C., Keller, C. O., & Chen, C. (2003, 11). Reflecting on ethics, ethical codes, and relevance in an international instructional technology community. TechTrends,47(6), 12-18

Relevance is the connection we have to something, being closely connected. Students have to find a connection between the work they are doing in school and the work that they will do when they enter the workforce.



Logical Fallacies. (n.d.). Retrieved February 20, 2017, from

Syllogistic Fallacy is when logical fallacy occur through deductive reasoning.

  1. All girls can read.
  2. All boys can read.
  3. Therefore, all boys are girls.



Curtis, G. (n.d.). Fallacy of Quantificational Logic. Retrieved February 20, 2017, from

Quantificational Fallacy is an error in logic where all or some of the statement contradicts itself. An example would be students taking part of a solution instead of the larger picture.

The Pursuit of Knowledge and Understanding

Cognitive Dissonance: “the mental conflict that occurs when beliefs or assumptions are contradicted by new information”(n.a., 2017). i.e. Cognitive dissonance happens in math and science classes all the time in elementary school. A math example is a young student trying to read a 3-digit number and read 307 as 30-7 or 37.

Cognitive dissonance. (2017). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved from

Cultural Invasion: the impoverishment of opposing views, creativity, and expression not their own (Amy C. Bradshaw, Keller, & Chen, 2003, p. 17). i.e. Native Americans lost their land, their culture, and in the end their language as they were forced onto reservation land. Immigrants entering English speaking American schools may feel impoverished as they are compelled to learn and speak English.

Bradshaw, A. C., Keller, C. O., & Chen, C.-H. (2003). Reflecting on ethics, ethical codes, and relevance in an international instructional technology community. TechTrends, 47(6), 12–18. doi:10.1007/bf02763279

Cultural Synthesis: “the desire to understand and honor existing cultures while supporting exchanges of ideas and information” (Amy C. Bradshaw, Keller, & Chen, 2003, p. 17). “to learn with people, about the people’s world” (Freire) i.e. Classrooms are filled with diverse populations. A teacher who spends time getting to know their students and their families builds a safe and inviting classroom environment where students will feel safe to share ideas.

Bradshaw, A. C., Keller, C. O., & Chen, C.-H. (2003). Reflecting on ethics, ethical codes, and relevance in an international instructional technology community. TechTrends, 47(6), 12–18. doi:10.1007/bf02763279

Dialogue: a conversation between two or more people to exchange ideas or opinions. i.e. Teachers meet weekly to dialogue to evaluate student data, planning, etc. Teachers and students engage in dialogue throughout each school day over lessons or topics chosen by students.

Merriam-Webster. (2017). Definition of DIALOGUE. Retrieved January 29, 2017, from

Dialectic: an inquiry-based argument, debate, or dialogue. A question and answer method of instruction. i.e. A dialectic approach could be used to train debate students or as a teaching method as in the Socratic method to engage students in deeper, critical thinking and reasoning to defend their argument.

Coffey, P. (2012). CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Dialectic. Retrieved January 29, 2017, from

Dichotomy: dual contrasting nature; good vs. bad, right vs. wrong, us vs. them…(Amy C. Bradshaw, Keller, & Chen, 2003). “a division into two especially mutually exclusive or contradictory groups or entities” (Merriam-Webster, 2017) i.e. Assignments are graded as correct or incorrect, student behavior is either good or bad. Literature is compared and contrasted.

Bradshaw, A. C., Keller, C. O., & Chen, C.-H. (2003). Reflecting on ethics, ethical codes, and relevance in an international instructional technology community. TechTrends, 47(6), 12–18. doi:10.1007/bf02763279

Merriam-Webster. (2017). Definition of DICHOTOMY. Retrieved January 29, 2017, from Merriam-Webster,

Ethics: being concerned for the greater good of all. Promotes social justice (Bradshaw, 2001, p. 17). i.e. As an educator, I am bound by a specific ethical code, such as I will treat all students equally or I will adhere to confidentiality.

Bradshaw, A. C. (2001). A Hermeneutic of ethical Teacher-Learner interaction. Journal of Thought, 36(2), 17–24. doi:10.2307/42590261

Hermeneutics: “Is part of a theory of knowledge that focuses on interpretation and understanding of meaning” (Bradshaw, 2001, p. 17). i.e. All learners seek to understand and interpret the world around them.

Bradshaw, A. C. (2001). A Hermeneutic of ethical Teacher-Learner interaction. Journal of Thought, 36(2), 17–24. doi:10.2307/42590261

Hermeneutics spiral/circle: Relating to interpretation and understanding, “The whole can not be understood without the parts, and the parts can not be understood without understanding the whole” (Bradshaw, 2001, p. 17). i.e. A teacher may show their class an end product such as a video a student created then guide the students through the steps to create their own video product or similarly a teacher may share several student writing examples before a writing assignment to give students an idea about the quality of work.

Bradshaw, A. C. (2001). A Hermeneutic of ethical Teacher-Learner interaction. Journal of Thought, 36(2), 17–24. doi:10.2307/42590261

Morals: behaving in a manner acceptable to society. A set of social rules (Bradshaw, 2001, p. 17). i.e. Students behavior is dictated by the environment they live in and their perception of what is acceptable by others.

Bradshaw, A. C. (2001). A Hermeneutic of ethical Teacher-Learner interaction. Journal of Thought, 36(2), 17–24. doi:10.2307/42590261

Positionality: the multiple, unique experiences that stimulate a person from within. Personal empowerment or lack thereof (Takacs, 2003, p.33). Includes: skin color, origin of birth, sex, parents/lineage etc. that we have no control over. I.e. A student may feel empowered to raise their hand in class, to answer questions, to take risks, because of their positionality. Likewise, due to a student’s positionality they may be afforded certain privileges or conversely be discriminated against.

Takacs, D. (2003). How does your positionality bias your epistemology?

Problem / Problematize: a question raised for inquiry, consideration, or solution / to consider or treat as a problem (Merriam-Webster, 2017). i.e. Student-centered inquiry-based learning is a pedagogical method that promotes the development of 21st Century learning.

Merriam-Webster. (2017). Definition of PROBLEM. Retrieved January 29, 2017, from

Merriam-Webster. (2017). Definition of PROBLEMATIZE. Retrieved January 29, 2017, from

Relevance: can only be defined by the context in which it is used (Amy C. Bradshaw, Keller, & Chen, 2003, p.15).) Synonyms: applicability, bearing, connection, materiality, pertinence (Merriam-Webster, 2017). i.e. for teachers to create relevant lesson plans they must consider the interests of previous knowledge of their students.

Bradshaw, A. C., Keller, C. O., & Chen, C.-H. (2003). Reflecting on ethics, ethical codes, and relevance in an international instructional technology community. TechTrends, 47(6), 12–18. doi:10.1007/bf02763279

Merriam-Webster. (2017). Definition of RELEVANCE. Retrieved January 29, 2017, from

Philosophical Underpinnings

Axiology: the theory or study of value. According to Dan Fox a Monterey Peninsula College Communications professor, values drive decision-making processes, and values define proper ways of interacting, questioning, pursuing, maintaining and exiting relationships (Fox, n.d.). “Axiology focuses on questions about what ‘ought to be’. It deals with the nature of values and relates to the teaching of moral values and character development” (Tomar, 2014, p. 51). I.E. In the classroom students should be given opportunities to explore real world student-centered problems involving decision making, critical thinking, collaboration, communication and may include service learning. Problem-based learning will enhance the world view of those involved and affect their values.

Fox, D. Axiology and values. Retrieved February 5, 2017, from Speech Comm at Monterey Peninsula College,

Tomar, B. (2014). Axiology in Teacher Education: Implementation and Challenges. Journal of Research & Method in Education, 4(2), 51–54. Retrieved from

Cognitive Flexibility: “the ability to think about things in a different way. …Flexible thinking enables one to consider new learning based on previous experience (Morin, 2014). The ability to transfer knowledge and skills beyond the initial learning situation (Culatta, 2015). I.E. A simplistic example of this is the many ways to solve various math problems. For example, a student might solve a simple addition problem using counters or tally marks. As the student develops they will see the relationship between this early form of counting and apply it to subtraction and later build on the concepts as they learn about adding and subtracting multiple digits equations. Which in turn will give rise to multiplication and division strategies.

Culatta, R. (2015). Cognitive flexibility theory. Retrieved February 7, 2017, from,

Morin, A. (2014). 6 ways kids use flexible thinking to learn. Retrieved February 7, 2017, from UNDERSTOOD.ORG,

Constructivist: the quality of individual interpretation (personal reality as determined by society and individuals relationship to society (Schuh & Barab, 2007)); personal interpretation of the world based on our experiences as distinguished from the culturally situative perspective (requiring unification of cognition and nature). I.E. When teachers build connections between students previous experiences (prior knowledge) and new content, students are able to increase their knowledge, understanding and their interpretation of the world. This past week my students broaden their understanding of measurement. Students were asked, “How do you know if you are growing?” They were able to describe how their parents record their growth on a wall or being measured at a doctor’s office. During their lessons, students measured and compared the sizes and shapes of various objects. Through their observations and measurements, they discovered the importance of using standardized measurements for accuracy. Their prior personal experiences with measurement and discovery activities have increased their understanding.  

Schuh, K. L., & Barab, S. A. (2007). Philosophical Perspectives. In Handbook of research on educational communications and technology (pp. 67–82). doi:10.4324/9780203880869

Epistemology: the theory of knowledge, “how we come to know about what exists” (Schuh & Barab, 2007, p. 68). I.E. A teacher, in an attempt to differentiate learning, will seek to understand how a student acquires knowledge before creating an instructional plan.

Schuh, K. L., & Barab, S. A. (2007). Philosophical Perspectives. In Handbook of research on educational communications and technology (pp. 67–82). doi:10.4324/9780203880869

Framing: how one presents information based on their expected outcome. The ability to persuade others to believe or interpret information in a given way. How information is framed impacts how we may respond and can impair our ethical judgment. I.E. As educators, this concept has two applications. One, that we must teach students to critically view information for bias and intent. Two, that we must be careful as we present information to our students that it is free of our own bias and beliefs. Politics are a good example of framing used to persuade and bias opinion.

Framing – ethics Unwrapped – UT Austin. (2017). Retrieved February 11, 2017, from Ethics Unwrapped,

Hidden (or Implicit) Curriculum: Unintended messages influenced by attitudes, values, beliefs, and behaviors not stated as learning goals or expectations of an organization. I.E. There are many things students learned through observation daily, such as how a teacher treats their students. Are they fair? Do they have favorites? Are they kind? Are they welcoming? Do they have high standards and expectations?

School curriculum – hidden curriculum. (2017). Retrieved February 11, 2017, from

Interpretivist: believe reality is a social construction such that individual and collective interpretations of reality are shaped by political, cultural, and economic values and experiences. (antonym – positivist) I.E. In an interpretivist classroom one might expect to see a heavy emphasis on cooperative and or collaborative work. History and social studies would be taught from an observational point of view, considering both sides of an issue and the effect the situation has on society as opposed to just stating the known facts, taking sides, right and wrong.

Cloud, D. (2003). Interpretivism in sociology: Definition & origin – video & lesson transcript Retrieved from

Null Curriculum: the untaught curriculum. I.E. Topics excluded from schools vary depending on the local or state curriculum guidelines may include, how to manage a home, create a budget, manage a checkbook/bank account or controversial topics like evolution, creation, sex education, gender issues, and so on.

Ebert, E. S., Ebert, C., & Bentley, M. L. (2013, July 19). Curriculum definition. Retrieved February 12, 2017, from

Objectivist: knowledge achieved through reason. I.E. An objectivist might argue or assume if they do well in school they will earn a scholarship to go to college. If they work hard and graduate from college they will get a good job and become self-reliant.

Thomas, W. R. (2010, June 15). What is the Objectivist theory of knowledge (epistemology)? Retrieved February 11, 2017, from

Ontology: “The study of how we determine if things exist or not, as well as the classification of existence” (Keefe, n.d.). I.E. In the elementary classroom, students analyse information of all types. For example they students may study a word list for similarities and difference, categorize, and sort to find common spelling patterns.

Keefe, J. What is Ontology? – Definition & Examples. Retrieved February 11, 2017, from

Paradigm: “a standard or typical example” (“Paradigm,” n.d.). I.E. A comparison of ideas such as traditional whole group instruction verus problem-based learning. Is the current standard whole group being challenged by problem-based learning causing a paradigm shift?

Paradigm (n.d.). In . Retrieved from

Positivist: believe that reality exists separate from and not dependent on an observer. Positivist “rely on scientific evidence, such as experiments and statistics, to reveal a true nature of how society operates” (Serva, 2003). (antonym – Interpretivist). I.E. A positivist teacher is a sage in the front of the room imparting facts and knowledge to their students. The student takes notes and memorizes the details imparted to them.

Serva, C. (2003). Positivism in sociology: Definition, theory & examples – video & lesson transcript Retrieved from


Effective Reasoning & Communication

Critical Thinking: “a mode of thinking – about any subject, content, or problem – in which the thinker improves the quality of his or her thinking by skillfully taking charge of the structures inherent in thinking and imposing intellectual standards upon them” (n.d., 2015)  I.E. To help develop students as critical thinking citizens a teacher may encourage them to create and maintain a metacognitive blog or journal.

Our concept and definition of critical thinking. (2015). Retrieved February 16, 2017, from The Critical Thinking Community,

Deconstruction: the critical analysis of philosophical and literary language emphasizing language systems to determine the relational quality of meaning. I.E. High school ELA students may study the literary works of two different authors of the same era to deconstruct the prevailing ideas of the time period.

deconstruction (n.d.). In English Oxford Living Dictionary. Retrieved from

Linguistic Codes, Code Switching: switching between two or more different languages within a conversation. I.E. A German language instructor requests a spoken response from their bilingual student. The student replies in German and mid sentence switches to Spanish or English or both.

code-switching (n.d.). In English Oxford Living Dictionaries. Retrieved from

Non sequitur: “”It does not follow” (Latin)” (Curtis, 2001b) an irrational or invalid argument based on an irrelevant conclusion. Not a true fallacy I.E. My mom cooked dinner last night so I chose not to go to school.

Curtis, G. (2001b). Glossary. Retrieved February 18, 2017, from Fallacy Files

Logical Fallacies: A mistake in reasoning.

Formal Fallacies: A formal fallacy is based solely on logical form.  A type of nonvalid argument. I.E. Everyone loves a snow day! If it is snowing outside there will be no school tomorrow. It is snowing. Therefore school is canceled tomorrow.

Probabilistic Fallacy: An argument that violates the laws of probability. I.E. A student earns an “A” on every spelling test without studying, therefore they do not need to study for the next test.

Conjunction fallacy:  the probability of two things being true can never be greater than the probability of one of them being true, since in other for both to be true, each must be true.

Gambler’s fallacy: based on a failure to understand statistical Independence that is two events are statistically independent when the occurrence of one has no statistical effect upon the occurrence of the other. I.E. Third grade students are graphing coin tosses as part of their unit on probability. They have recorded 5 heads in a row. The next is sure to be tails.

Hot handed fallacy: Example when gamblers are on a winning streak and keep betting or increasing their wagers to take advantage of 8 of their good luck they commit this fallacy

Multiple Comparisons fallacy: An inductive argument where there is a chance that the conclusion will be false even if the evidence is true. (Also referred to as the Texas sharpshooter’s fallacy: Jumping to conclusions)

Propositional Fallacy: the logical relationship between sentences taken as a whole, and compound sentences that are constructed from simple ones with truth-functional connectivities. I.E. Today is Monday. Today is library check-out day. Therefore today is Library day.

Affirming a Disjunct

Affirming the Consequent

Commutation of Conditionals

Denying a Conjunct

Denying the Antecedent

Improper Transposition

Quantificational Fallacy: An extension of a propositional logic, and quantificational logic is it logical mistake specific to the feature of qualification logic that go beyond those found in propositional logic “all,” “none” and “some” I.E. All second-grade students love pizza. No second-grade students like peas.

Existential Fallacy

Illicit Conversion

Quantifier Shift

Some Are/Some Are Not

Syllogistic Fallacy: an argument with two premises I.E. All crows are black. I have a black bird. My bird must be a crow.

Affirmative Conclusion from a Negative Premiss

Exclusive Premisses

Four-Term Fallacy

Illicit Process

Negative Conclusion from Affirmative Premisses

Undistributed Middle

Informal Fallacies: An informal fallacy takes into account the non-logical content of the argument I.E. It’s the teacher’s fault if a student does not pass their exams.

Dialectical: dialogue between two or more people

The Straw Man Fallacy Creates a memorable image that takes the attention off the actual argument. I.E. On the playground, Sally’s friends are mocking a new girl. Sally says they should be friendly welcoming to the girl. Sally’s friends want to know why she doesn’t like them anymore.

Epistemological: refers to the philosophical study of knowledge. These fallacies to not advance knowledge as the end up in the came palace they started. A circular argument.

Begging the question I.E. Studying for your exams will earn a good grade. Good grades are a result of studying.

Linguistic: refers to language. Words and phrases can have more than one meaning leading to ambiguity.

Ambiguity: occurs when words or phrases have more than one meaning. I.E. Tony finished his work in class today. Therefore, Tony usually completes his work at home or outside of class.

Curtis, G. (2001). What is a logical fallacy? Retrieved February 17, 2017, from Fallacy Files


Tales of Greybriar house

City of Sandy Springs

Case #: 998756                                                                           Date: 5/12/1893

Reporting Officer: Mike Sparks                                                  Prepared by: Julia Muller

Incident: Suspicious scream, Death


At 5:22 a.m. on May 12th, I was dispatched to the Greybriar residence regarding a suspicious scream. Leann Grandberg (DOB 8-6-1875) reported the screaming from what sounded like a male coming from the Greybriar’s property.
Arrived at 6:07 a.m. to investigate the report. I walked onto the property. On the east side of the house, the barn door was wide open and I could see a lantern shining through the doorway. I walked in and found what seemed to be a trespasser dead.

A pitchfork was driven through his skull. He was alone. No sign of others on the property. I called an investigation team to look in depth at the crime scene.

This was not a self-inflicted crime. The way the pitchfork was positioned in his skull, doesn’t match up with suicide or even murder. There was something else missing from the scene.

There have been horror stories/rumors of ghosts on the Greybriar property. After seeing this crime scene and speaking to neighbors, I believe that this could have been the action of a ghost. Being a police officer, I know how crazy this sounds but with all the reports and crimes that have taken place here, nothing surprises me.

BP5- Voluntary/Private Sectors

Explain the role the voluntary and private sector have in social welfare. Describe at least 2 benefits and 2 concerns relating to the voluntary sector and/or the private sector in general.

The role the voluntary sector has in social welfare is supposed to be with the government’s involvement. The government usually contracts with the nonprofits  to provide social services.Presidents pushed for faith-based social services to help with social welfare. The role of the private sector is without the government’s involvement. Conservatives pushed for downsizing the government, which would make private sectors in charge of social services, which are for-profit.

Two concerns relating to the voluntary sector are religious precepts and celebrity philanthropy. Religious precepts is when religious nonprofits’s main goal is to promote their religious values. This goes against public policy. Celebrity philanthropy is when nonprofits seek help from celebrities for promotions. This makes these issues seem more as entertainment than social welfare.

Guns and Ships – Hamiltonthepodcast

(warning for a bit of language in the audio)

So this weekend I did something new; I listened to a podcast! It was a bit difficult to find one that interested me (I have trouble sitting still for most anything over half and hour) but eventually, I found one about my newest obsession: Hamilton! Though I have not seen the award winning Broadway show, snippets of songs were shown to me through various outlets. Eventually, during one of many long nights doing projects (since I was in architecture before journalism) I decided to listen to the entire CD, which had been uploaded by someone on YouTube. After that, I was hooked! So, it only made sense to pick a podcast that corresponded with my newest interest. While it did have some interesting facts, it was a tad too wordy to keep my attention for long. I expected it to be just about listening to the song. The two people seem to talk more to themselves than to the ‘audience’ so it tended to steer my attention away. Unfortunately, I don’t think podcasts are for me. I am a more visual person than auditory, so this might be why. Maybe trying some of the others (probably the shorter ones) might be better for me. Even so, if you are a fan of Hamilton, this might interest you!

Carta de Opinión

Estimado Señor Editor:

En el 23 enero de 2017 la cita El País se publicó un articulo se llama “La Casa Blanca de Donald Trump elimina el español de su página ‘web’” por Silvia Ayuso y,  aunque los opiniones del autora parece un poco neutral, creo que yo esté de acuerdo con ella. Creo que los aciones de la administración de Trump son horribles y que es necesario que todas personas que viven en los Estados Unidos pueden tener acceso de la información que necesitan. Quiero ver más artículos sobre el efecto del gobierno en la cultura de un país y otros países, también. Eliminando los páginas en español en una cita del gobierno de los estados unidos es muy peligroso para muchas razones.

Hay un gran porcentaje de personas en los estados unidos que hablan español y muchos de esas personas solamente pueden hablar en español. Por eso, la eliminación de las páginas en español es peligroso porque muchas personas no tienen la herramienta de información. Si una persona que vive en los estados unidos y solamente pueden hablar español necesita información sobre el gobierno, no podrá tener acceso de la información. Cuando el gobierno empieza malinterpretado los ciudadanos es una problema que necesitamos arreglar inmediatamente.

La cultura de los estados unidos y los relaciones con otras países puede cambiar también. La cultura va a cambiar si no acepta o representa personas que solamente hablan español en el país. Hay una razón porque la option de paginas en español fue disponible antes y la razón aún es relevante hoy.


Emily Berry