Chapter 4 Review

How did the music industry attempt to curb illegal downloading and file-sharing?

The music industry fought back with a barrage of lawsuits. The most influential case that set the tone for the future of digital music legality was A&M v Napster. The U.S. Supreme Court ruled in favor of the music industry, claiming that reproduction and distribution of copyrighted material was illegal. Napster was not the only corporation of its kind. Many other free file-sharing services were either shut down by lawsuit fines or forced to convert their practices to meet the demands of legal precedent. Eventually, these legal precedents would be well met. In 2003, Apple launched the iTunes service, which essentially provided the same functionality as sites like Napster, but did so by putting a price on each MP3 file, as a means of respecting copyright royalties. This way, the convenience of compressed file-sharing was maintained without compromising the legality of the copyright dispute.

Music Evolution.

To me the most interesting thing was the evolution of how music is streamed/purchased. One of the things that I find to be so interesting is how the things that they fought so hard to keep down have no become the norm. As we discussed in class Napster was one of the first ways of streaming music. Today iTunes has kind of taken the place of my of the ways we used to stream music. I think that my favorite way of accessing music would be through the use of CD’s. In my day, CD’s are outdated, but I, like most people my age, grew up listening to CD’s. So for me, there’s a weird sense of nostalgia when I listen to music. Also, I grew up primarily listening to the radio, and as miserable as it was, I miss having to listen to the radio all day to wait and see if my favorite song came on. I feel like with the way we listen to music today it has kind of became not so much about the music, but more about the artists coming out with as much music as quickly as possible. This takes away from the quality of the music and focuses much more on just the amount of music being produced. Although that is a little off topic, it has so much to do with the evolution of music itself. The change in the way people not only purchase music, but also, the way people consume music has made artists work faster to produce music and not focus on the quality of music.

BP 8 Mental health and substance abuse

How has U.S. federal drug and mental health policy positively and negatively affected mental health and substance abuse in the U.S.?  Use at least 2 policies for each (mental health and substance abuse) to defend your answer.

(Reading summarized)

Congress passed the Mental Health Act of 1946, which established the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). In 1961, NIMH released Action for Mental Health, a report that called for an ambitious national effort to modernize the U.S. system of psychiatric care. The first Community Mental Health Centers Act was passes by Congress and signed by President Kennedy in 1963. Funding became an issue for this and it wasn’t until 165, when the American Medical Association authorized for staffing for CMHC. In 1981, the Reagan administration collapsed all mental health funding into a block grant available f=to states for any mental health services deemed fundable. By the end of the 1990s, 93 percent of the state psychiatric beds that had existed in 1955 were lost to deinstitutionalization. Deinstituationalization was further confounded by a series of judicial decisions in the mid-1970s that enhanced the civil rights of mental patients while at the same time requiring states to provide them with treatment. By the late 1970s some 40,000 poor, chronically ill mental patients had been “dumped” in New York City. In 2002, the New York Times reported that hundreds of patients released from state psychiatric hospitals in New York in recent years are being locked away on isolated floors of nursing homes, where they are barred from going outside on their own, have almost no contact with others and have little ability to contest their confinement. As a result, reformers altered judicial policy by creating special courts to deal with nonviolent offenders who had mental disorders. In 2000, Congress passed American’s Law Enforcement and Mental Health Project Act. By the end of 2004, a consortium of mental health advocacy organizations reported that 99 mental health courts were operating. Since the creation of mental health block grants, federal funding for mental health and substance services has increased to $3.4 billion for 2013, $142 million less than for 2012.

Karger, H. J., & Stoesz, D. (2014). American social welfare policy: a pluralist approach. NY, NY: Pearson.

Review Questions.

1. How did sound recording survive the advent of radio?
Sound recording and radio both survived by forming an alliance. The rock music industry helped greatly with this by creating a youth market for sound recording which then led to new content for radio. Both industries found that they could benefit off of hit songs and could help each other greatly.

2. Why is it ironic that so many forms of alternative music become commercially successful?
It is ironic because these different forms came from rock and roll which really helped the music industry. From that genre came all of these other forms which broke down stereotypes and it did more than that. Even when people tried to tame these “alternative” forms, they just continued to crush the rules. It really transformed into something huge for music and it took time for people to catch up.

Chapter 4: Sound Recording and Popular Music

How did sound recording survive the advent of radio?

Sound recording was first experimented with in the 1850’s by Édouard-Leon de Martinville but had many contributors before it became a mass medium like Thomas Edison who created the phonogram in 1877, Thomas Edison was successful in getting sound to playback, unlike Édouard-Leon de Martinville. Shortly after in 1886 Chichester Bell and Charles Sumner Tainter who came up with the graphophone that played back wax cylinders with prerecorded music on them, then Emile Berliner created records and they could be sold in mass quantities, he called this the gramophone and every household had one. He also stamped records with labels so consumers could choose records from their favorite artists and songs. Then shellac discs were created but did not make much of an improvement in the sound quality of the records. There was a machine created to play records called Victrolas but later was replaced by electric record players.

This happened until the 1930’s when the great depression and the invention of the radio made a measurable decrease in sales. Eventually, shellac was needed and used for World War II. This is when the creation of polyvinyl records began. The polyvinyl records were very successful in durability and noise. Polyvinyl records turned the recorded music industry around and customers started to buy records. Just like in the beginning of the creation of sound recording where people began liking to be able to choose pre-recorded music from their favorite singers and songwriters. I feel like this is how millennials today prefer pre-recorded music over listening to the radio.

Questioning The Media

Question 4: The internet has transformed the way the music industry reaches consumers. With popular streaming services such as Spotify, consumers have easier access to larger amounts of music, making it less convenient for people to buy CDs or songs individually. I believe the internet both helps and hurts musical artists, depending on their popularity, income, etc.

The internet equips lesser-known artists with a way to stream their music to larger audiences, therefore increasing their popularity, which in turn might increase ticket sales to concerts and selling out larger venues. More popularity might also mean more money for record deals.

On the other hand, streaming services do hinder the amount of income artists receive. That is why recently several artists, like Taylor Swift, for example,  have pulled their music from streaming services like Spotify on the grounds that their music is something that should be paid for.

Whether artists believe the internet hurts their profitability, it is a tool that ultimately can sustain their career. How else do people connect with one another in this world today? The internet grants a large part of the world access to all types of music, so how could that possibly be a bad thing? Music is meant to be heard, enjoyed and shared amongst people. The amount of income one wishes to make should not deter them from sharing their art with the world.

I can see why many contemporary artists disagree in their opinions about the internet when it comes to music. One reason might be that widely popular artists, like Adele and Beyoncé, make a large amount of money per year from their music alone, so streaming their music through the internet would decrease this number. Lesser-known artists wish to share their craft through any means since they have not yet profited the same amount of money such as them. When it comes to the relationship between the internet and music, it’s a catch-22. Some may win, others may lose.

Date Party

So, I had a slight dilemma this past week. My sorority has a semi-formal this Friday and I was struggling to find a date. After getting shot down not once, but twice (one said no, because he is going home for his dad’s 50th b-day and the other just said no OUCH), I finally found a date. A really good date, at that. I went shopping with my mom for a dress today and found the perfect one! I must add, I am super excited to see all those boys dressed up (;

XOXO, Gossip Girl

Freshman Year

Wow. Freshman year is almost over. It is so crazy to think that we only have a few weeks left of the first year of college. Time is already passing too quickly! Just like in high school, time flies after spring break. It’s very depressing, because freshman year is supposed to be “the best year of your college career.” I guess we’ll see.

Chapter 4 Review

Chapter four Review Question: How did the music industry attempt to curb illegal downloading and file-sharing?
In the 1990’s CD’s were a huge thing to music lovers, but by 1999 to about 2010 there were websites created for the public to download MP3 files and own music without paying a single dime. Because of all the illegal downloading of music files happening, the music industry fought back with a multitude of lawsuits targeted towards the file-sharing companies and at individual downloaders because of the loss of countless music sales. Even though there were many lawsuits, the popularity of MP3 downloads continued to prosper. The United States Supreme Court backed the music industry and declared that free music file-swapping was illegal and was in violation of music copyrights held by artists and their recording labels. Although the music industry jumped through a multitude of hoops to regain its sales back from all the illegal downloads, there fight was not quite over. Systems like Grokster, LimeWire, Morpheus, Kazaa, eDonkey, eMule, and BitTorrent began popping up, which once again implemented a website that provided the means for online music file-sharing. Once again the music industry waged war against the MP3 file-sharing websites by filing thousands of lawsuits, and many of the lawsuits turned out to be successful for the music industry. Many services were shut down and fined, and if that did not take place then the service settled its lawsuit and became a legal service. Huge internet providers, by 2011, agreed to help the the music industry identify its customers who they thought might be illegally downloading music files, while also trying to prevent their customers by sending them copyright alert letters and also sending internet users to digital piracy web pages and slowing their download speed.

Why does pop music continue to remain powerful today?

Music is everywhere whether that be constantly playing on the radio or streaming through our headphones music has become almost an essential part to our day-to-day lives. The catchy tune we set as our alarm in the mornings, the radio shows and hit songs we listen to on the way to work, the spotify or pandora playlist we play as we walk to class, the elevator music, the background music you hear as you walk into a store or a restaurant, the rhythm created in busy cities, or the peaceful sounds in wide open spaces, music surrounds us.

The genre Pop music has transcended many decades from Elvis Presley, The Beatles, Michael Jackson, to Beyonce’ and Adele and all the other artists we listen to today. In chapter 4 of Campbell’s Media and Culture it explains that pop music has endured and flourished in more recent years due to iTunes. iTunes has aided in the era of digital downloading by creating a stigma for the single, making it more popular in sales than the entire digital album. The accessibility to tons of music through services like Spotify has also helped change and shape the music industry. Besides the fact pop music is one of the (if not the) most popular genre of music, what makes it powerful? Why is it used on many platforms? Why do most music radio stations focus on pop music? Because it is simply complicated. It has an engaging rhythm that makes you want to dance and repetitive lyrics that are easy to sing along to. That is what makes it intriguing, that anyone can sing along, anyone can enjoy it. Pop music is catchy and gets stuck in your head, and when it gets stuck in your head you hum the tune wherever you go bound to run into someone who will jam out with you or help you finish a lyric if you forget a part. That’s why it’s powerful, it’s a connection.